Sections V - X - Pulse




Sections V - X - Pulse

4/6/ 5 Pulse Characteristics Pulse Tilt Tim e A m p li t u d e V 1 V 2 V 2 V V 1 V 2 V is the average of max and min values % V V V %Tilt 1 2 u 0

The desired polarity of intentional violations (V) is achieved by assigning a value 0 or B to X such that the total number of Bs since the last V is odd. Because it is not desirable to have adjacent pulses of the same polarity, the X and V time slots are separated by a no-pulse condition, which gives an easily recognizable X0V pattern in each intentional BPV sequence.

Pulses. A pulse can be described as wave consisting of a single disturbance that moves through the medium with a constant amplitude. The pulse moves as a pattern that maintains its shape as it propagates with a constant wave speed. Because the wave speed is constant, the distance the pulse moves in a time [latex] \text{Δ}t [/latex] is equal to [latex] \text{Δ}x=v\text{Δ}t [/latex] ().

The first two symmetries are were discussed previously in the discussions of the pulse function (x T (t) is even) and the sawtooth wave (x T (t) is odd). Half-wave symmetry is depicted the diagram below. The top function, x T1 (t), is odd (x T1 (t)=-x T1 (-t)), but does not have half-wave symmetry.

V1 = 0 (pulse starts at zero) V2 = 1 (rises to one volt) PW = 1 (pulse width is 1 second) PER = 10 (the pulse will repeat every 10 seconds) The transient analysis is set to run for 10 seconds and the initial inductor current is set to zero. Note that even though the pulse repeats in 10 seconds, the analysis ends before this repeat occurs.


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  1. Cross-section of the coaxial cable d D V x t V t v Z §· ¨¸ 0 ©¹ n x t v Z V(V) s) Incident pulse Reflected pulse 2/10/ Spring Resistive load Z L =R L irL k VVR Z or Lk ri Lk RZ VV RZ Matching the load impedance R.

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